Attachment theory is critical in analyzing personal characteristics and relational behaviors across the lifespan  (see also article “Different Types of Attachment and Socio-emotional Development Throughout the Lifespan“). Bowlby’s findings that individuals construct internal representations of the self and others that serve as guidelines on how to behave in social interactions  might indeed have an association with self-esteem as self-esteem is integral to how somebody feels about oneself .
Research provides evidence that higher self-esteem positively influences friendships as well as attachment (trust) to parents and school . The mediating role of self-esteem for friendship attachment was also already confirmed earlier . The positive effect of increased self-esteem on secure attachment may also favor mental health and subjective well-being . Similar to self-esteem, adult attachment orientation was also found to be connected with emotional intelligence .
On the other side, attachment experiences themselves turned out to be decisive for individuals’ positive self-perception, attachment style links to self-esteem . People with personality Type D tend to sense more negative emotions and obstacles to social relationships. While reported 52% of this personality trait are inherited, self-esteem might be a more easily amenable environmental factor capable of influencing Type D personality and the related insecure attachment behavior . From that perspective, despite the strong influence of early attachment formation and genetic dispositions, there are possibilities for corrections towards individuals’ more secure attachment throughout life, i.e., through more trust a more intimate and happy life.
Photo credit: suju (pixabay.com)
 Huis in ’t Veld, E. M., Vingerhoets, A. J., & Denollet, J. (2011). Attachment style and self-esteem: The mediating role of Type D personality. Personality And Individual Differences, 50(Special Issue on Anxiety (dedicated to the memory of Professor Blazej Szymura), 1099-1103. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.034
 Kang, Y., Lee, J., & Kang, M. (2014). Adult attachment styles, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms: A comparison between postpartum and nonpostpartum women in Korea. Personal Relationships, 21(4), 546-556.
 Kocayörük, E., & Şimşek, Ö. F. (2016). Parental Attachment and Adolescents’ Perception of School Alienation: The Mediation Role of Self-Esteem and Adjustment. Journal Of Psychology, 150(4), 405-421.
 Bosacki, S., Dane, A., & Marini, Z. (2007). Peer relationships and internalizing problems in adolescents: Mediating role of self-esteem. Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 12(4), 261-282. doi:10.1080/13632750701664293
 Xu, L., & Xue, Z. (2014). Adult attachment orientations and subjective well-being: Emotional intelligence and self-esteem as moderators. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 42(8), 1257-1265.