There may be two primary caregiver roles: one of a secure haven and one of exploration and discovery. These functions are not gender-specific though. Across different cultures, fathers who are alone with their children show similar behavior as mothers. Dual attachment offers the opportunity for children to build sensitive relationships with their fathers too, which is important for their development throughout life. Awareness should be increased regarding the risks and (socio-cultural) barriers that exist about fathers’ family involvement.
There was a lot of debate whether fathers’ role in parenting is one that involves play from nature or culture perspective . Rather than nature or culture, a more precise answer may lie in a more biocultural approach . Attachment theory traditionally focused on the quality of bonds required for forming a secure attachment that serves ensuring safety against threats from an evolutionary perspective. Bowlby acknowledged in 2010, however, also the need for studying the human drive for exploration that may be well based on a secure base as described before, and therefore extending attachment theory towards two primary attachment figures who would diversify into two different but equally important roles: one of a secure haven and one of discovery and excitement. These functions are not gender based .
Across different cultures, fathers’ behavior when together (alone) with their children was similar to that of mothers with their children . Studies found differences between the styles of mothers and fathers in some countries (e.g., India, France, Italy, and Switzerland), but not in other cultures (e.g., Aka, Sweden, Taiwan) where fathers did not play more with their children than mothers did . That leads a possible conclusion that the dual attachment model might apply more to Western than to Eastern cultures where collectivist culture may be considered to be socializing for a more generic group functioning rather than building close relationships with different specific individuals . Also, in adolescence, a natural tendency to extend the primary parental attachment to peers occurs .
Another aspect influencing the play-behavior in father-children behavior may be the child’s temperament that is, according to goodness-of-fit model, requiring parents to respond to the child’s interest and need . The characteristic of the relationship between a child and its father may have bidirectional effects .
It seems like a father is not a mere playmate at all and research evidence that father’s sensitive involvement in child rearing is impacting a child’s development and success as an adult the same way as that of mothers. There is the risk factor of having more than 40% of children in the UK and US being of insecure attachment style. Another attachment risk represents long (i.e., full day) impersonal childcare and a third factor is parental separation (i.e., losing mom or dad as a primary caregiver). All these risks need to be taken into account when considering a child’s emotional development . Fathering issues also exist from the point of view that their involvement often remains limited, for example, by long working hours at the workplace. Health professionals and family therapists should be aware of fathering issues inclusive related social barriers that are hindering fathers from higher family involvement .
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