Insufficient Justification Effect and Dissonance Theory

For instance, researchers at Stanford University once divided students into two groups. One received a small cash payment for turning wooden knobs round and round for an hour. The other group received a generous payment for the same task. After the hour, a researcher asked students in each group to tell the next person after … Continue reading Insufficient Justification Effect and Dissonance Theory

Overjustification effect: Consequences in education & workplace

Findings from the Lepper et al.’s (1973) study suggest that presenting extrinsic rewards poses central problems in the schooling system in that it fails to preserve the intrinsic interest in learning and exploration that a child may seem to possess during his initial phase in school. This also has severe ramifications on the education system, … Continue reading Overjustification effect: Consequences in education & workplace

Overjustification effect: The experiment

Experiment descriptionIn 1973, Lepper, Greene and Nisbett met with teachers of a preschool class, the sort that generates a steady output of macaroni art and paper-bag vests. They arranged for the children to have a period of free time in which the tots could choose from a variety of different fun activities. Meanwhile, the psychologists … Continue reading Overjustification effect: The experiment

Identities: Obstacles to change

[This article was also published together with other authors at the ‘Skilled Helpers Collaborative’:] Transitions can be defined as ‚Äúchange from one form to another.‚ÄĚ In physical life, change is inevitable. So, we (and all matter) constantly change. Our body that we occupied only a few years ago does not contain the same atoms … Continue reading Identities: Obstacles to change

LET YOURSELF OFFEND. The benefits of letting you get offended.

You get an understanding and compassionate ear here, but the most significant benefit lies in permitting me to offend you. First of all, if I didn‚Äôt dare to offend, I couldn‚Äôt be honest. Being offended offers a real-world check outside of one‚Äôs comfort zone. Second, if I solely entertained you, I‚Äôd waste your time distracting … Continue reading LET YOURSELF OFFEND. The benefits of letting you get offended.

The ability to respond

Recognize how important you are. Every dream for a better world, every creative act, and even a seemingly naive idea can inspire and provide the courage to break out of the cage of limited knowing. It’s about what you can do in your mind. It‚Äôs not compliance, but bold responsibility that nurtures your, others, and all humankind‚Äôs Awareness Intelligence. What else could be more worth to realize?! I, for my part, rather want to have tried.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Among those who wanted to know if the mind was just a pile of reactions to rewards and punishments were psychologists Mark Lepper, Daniel Greene, and Richard Nisbett. They wondered if thinking about thinking played a bigger role than the behaviorists suggested. In their book, The Hidden Costs of Reward, they detail one experiment in … Continue reading Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Critical thinking

Why Awareness Intelligence is neededCritical thinking diminishes when human‚Äôs inherent compassion and desire for truth is constrained. Unaware system justification is further blocking critical thinking and can also manifest in system-reinforcing victim blaming and stereotyping.

Leadership & (Em-)Power(-ment)

From our ‘80% Percent is Psychology’ session, Wednesday, January 16th, 2019. Thanks all for the great discussions! Force causes counter-force; and transactional leadership likely results in compliance only; It is transformational leadership based on inspiration and collaboration that increases most follower‚Äôs involvement and true commitment. It is not the acquisition of power (whether it be … Continue reading Leadership & (Em-)Power(-ment)


Objectives To provide participants an understanding of leadership from a psychological perspective, and to examine the impact of culture on leadership success. Description In this course, participants will study leadership challenges from a several different psychological perspectives, gaining an understanding of more or less effective leadership styles across different cultures and contexts, and the ethical … Continue reading INSPIRING OTHERS ACROSS CULTURES AND (SELF-) LEADERSHIP PSYCHOLOGY

Separation: The Mother of Frustration

Like a nation‚Äės immigration So its mothers‚Äô alienation Strategy for protection Through separation Frustration Like a society‚Äôs identification So its mothers’ justification Need for appreciation Through separation Frustration Like a family‚Äôs condition So its mother’s assertion Status for position Through separation Frustration

Why People Justify Social Systems That Disadvantage Them

The paradox of the disadvantaged justifying authoritarian systems It can seem paradoxical that people often justify the existing social system even when this comes at personal and collective costs [1]. System Justification Theory (SJT) provides a framework to understand what the motives and contexts behind this phenomenon are [2]. SJT posits that an underlying ideology … Continue reading Why People Justify Social Systems That Disadvantage Them

Z (Psychology Resources)

Zepf, S., Ullrich, B., & Seel, D. (2016). Oedipus and the Oedipus complex: A revision.¬†The International Journal Of Psycho-Analysis,¬†97(3), 685-707. doi:10.1111/1745-8315.12278 Zhang, Z. (2015). Assimilation, Accommodation, and Equilibration: A Schema-Based Perspective on Translation as Process and as Product.¬†International Forum Of Teaching & Studies,¬†11(1/2), 84-89. Ziegler, D. J. (2002). Freud, Rogers, and Ellis: A comparative theoretical … Continue reading Z (Psychology Resources)

V (Psychology Resources)

Vaitkus, S. (1990). THE CRISIS AS A BANKRUPTCY OF TRUST: THE FIDUCIARY ATTITUDE, HUMAN NATURE AND ETHICAL SCIENCE.¬†International Sociology,¬†5(3), 287. Valiunas, A. (2010). The Science of Self-Help.¬†New Atlantis: A Journal Of Technology & Society,¬†2885-100. Van Buren, B. R., & Meehan, K. B. (2015). Child maltreatment and vulnerable narcissism: The roles of shame and disavowed need.¬†Journal … Continue reading V (Psychology Resources)

S (Psychology Resources)

Sacks B., & Buckley S. (2003). Motor development for individuals with Down syndrome‚ÄĒAn overview.¬†Down Syndrome Education Online. Retrieved from¬† Salgado, J. F., Moscoso, S., & Berges, A. (2013). Conscientiousness, Its Facets, and the Prediction of Job Performance Ratings: Evidence against the narrow measures.¬†International Journal Of Selection & Assessment,¬†21(1), 74-84. doi:10.1111/ijsa.12018 Salonen, L. (2013). L. S. … Continue reading S (Psychology Resources)

N (Psychology Resources)

Nabi, R. L. (2015). Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.¬†Health Communication,¬†30(2), 114-124. doi:10.1080/10410236.2014.974129 Nader-Grosbois, N. (2014). Self-perception, self-regulation and metacognition in adolescents with intellectual disability.¬†Research In Developmental Disabilities,¬†351334-1348. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.033 Nagel, J. (2012). Fear, Helplessness, and Rage.¬†Satir Journal,¬†5(1), 65-69. Nahla, A. (2017). Differences in styles of thinking ‚ÄėIn Light of Sternberg‚Äôs Theory‚Äô: A case study of … Continue reading N (Psychology Resources)

J (Psychology Resources)

Jacob, M., & Meek, V. L. (2013). Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building.¬†Studies In Higher Education,¬†38(3), 331-344. Jagger, P. (2017, March 23). Bridging East to West ‚Äď Japan Inc‚Äôs Top 3 HR Priorities for The Year Ahead. Retrieved from James, P., & Scerri, … Continue reading J (Psychology Resources)