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Strong culture – weak culture
A strong organizational culture helps leadership and motivation, but it risks to become too rigid and inflexible. A leader needs to balance the inflexibility of a strong organizational culture with resistance to change from a too weak organizational culture.
Creating the need for change
A leader is analyzing and realizing that there is an unsatisfactory situation, then creates and communicates the required sense of urgency.
Behavior change can be “coerced” but it may be ineffective for positive changes of attitudes, such as solidarity and accountability.
Unfreeze, change, refreeze
People generally don’t like to unfreeze their accustomed situation. To unfreeze and change, change agents should reassure, involve, empower, support, and celebrate change.
“Men have made millions of laws to punish crimes, and they have not established even one to reward virtue” Dragonetti (1766)
Solidarity and accountability
Payments are not resolving the solidarity problem in a competitive and career dominated environment. Leadership based on self-awareness (e.g., servant leadership) creates a sense of increased meaning, belonging, and promotes accountability and self-leadership.
Resistance vs. apathy
Resistance might be preferable to apathy, as resistance can highlight genuine problems in proposals, and there is an energy that serves as a source of commitment from converted followers.
(Transformational) leadership needs to be fine-tuned according to cultural contexts, such as collectivism/individualism and power distance. For example, on an individual level: low power distance fosters higher emotional commitment to transformational leadership.
Material from the session on January 9th, 2019, 19:30 – 21:00 in Tokyo (at J-Global, Yaesu)Course-2-Session-5-Leadership-Cultural-Threats-and-Change_v03-compressed
- Cooperative behavior arises where it is cherished
- Cooperative conflict management
- Means to promote cooperation
- Equitable treatment to maintain willingness to cooperate
Cooperative behavior arises where it is cherished
Women are often considered to have a greater tendency to use their cooperativeness for successful international assignments, especially where indirect communication is the culturally appropriate style as is tendentially the case in high-context cultures like Asia . Cooperative and communicative qualities (versus more competitive ones) have been attributed to woman stereotypically. Research shows that cooperativeness depends a lot on the environment respectively the organization wherein it is more or less cherished.
Cooperative conflict management
Cooperative approaches to conflict exert positive effects on the relationship between employee and foreign manager, as a study also confirmed for the Chinese context . As Western methods can create confrontations in transition economies, conflicting values and practices need to be resolved between different partners .
Means to promote cooperation
Different cultures should be recognized as different. A local-foreign social categorization can underline who needs help and who can provide the same . There are other influenceable means to promote cooperation too. For example, cooperative goals for leaders aid cross-cultural leadership . Focusing on long-term relationships and cooperation contributes to beneficial expatriate experiences . Soft-skills-centric relationships (i.e., guanxi relationships in the East) result in an environment conducive to cooperative and positive interdependencies between coworkers .
Equitable treatment to maintain willingness to cooperate
If expatriates get advantaged, domestic employees might perceive inequitable treatment, which might impair their motivation, willingness to cooperate, and work performance; something HR and Global Talent Management (GTM) functions of multinational enterprises (MNEs) need to be aware of too .
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