- Cooperative behavior arises where it is cherished
- Cooperative conflict management
- Means to promote cooperation
- Equitable treatment to maintain willingness to cooperate
Cooperative behavior arises where it is cherished
Women are often considered to have a greater tendency to use their cooperativeness for successful international assignments, especially where indirect communication is the culturally appropriate style as is tendentially the case in high-context cultures like Asia . Cooperative and communicative qualities (versus more competitive ones) have been attributed to woman stereotypically. Research shows that cooperativeness depends a lot on the environment respectively the organization wherein it is more or less cherished.
Cooperative conflict management
Cooperative approaches to conflict exert positive effects on the relationship between employee and foreign manager, as a study also confirmed for the Chinese context . As Western methods can create confrontations in transition economies, conflicting values and practices need to be resolved between different partners .
Means to promote cooperation
Different cultures should be recognized as different. A local-foreign social categorization can underline who needs help and who can provide the same . There are other influenceable means to promote cooperation too. For example, cooperative goals for leaders aid cross-cultural leadership . Focusing on long-term relationships and cooperation contributes to beneficial expatriate experiences . Soft-skills-centric relationships (i.e., guanxi relationships in the East) result in an environment conducive to cooperative and positive interdependencies between coworkers .
Equitable treatment to maintain willingness to cooperate
If expatriates get advantaged, domestic employees might perceive inequitable treatment, which might impair their motivation, willingness to cooperate, and work performance; something HR and Global Talent Management (GTM) functions of multinational enterprises (MNEs) need to be aware of too .
 Tung, R. L. (1997). Canadian expatriates in Asia-Pacific: An analysis of their attitude toward and experience in international assignments. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, St. Louis, MO.
 Jelinek, Mariann, a., & Nancy J. Adler, a. (1988). Women: World-Class Managers for Global Competition. The Academy Of Management Executive (1987-1989), (1), 11.
 Yifeng, C., Dean, T., & Sofia Su, F. (2005). WORKING WITH FOREIGN MANAGERS: CONFLICT MANAGEMENT FOR EFFECTIVE LEADER RELATIONSHIPS IN CHINA. International Journal Of Conflict Management, (3), 265. doi:10.1108/eb022932
 Danis, W. M. (2003). Differences in values, practices, and systems among Hungarian managers and Western expatriates: An organizing framework and typology. Journal Of World Business, 38(3), 224-244. doi:10.1016/S1090-9516(03)00020-8
 Leonardelli, G. J., & Toh, S. M. (2011). Perceiving expatriate coworkers as foreigners encourages aid: social categorization and procedural justice together improve intergroup cooperation and dual identity. Psychological Science, 22(1), 110-117. doi:10.1177/0956797610391913
 Yifeng, N. C., & Tjosvold, D. (2008). Goal interdependence and leader-member relationship for cross-cultural leadership in foreign ventures in China. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(2), 144-166. doi:10.1108/01437730810852498
 Pfeiffer, J. (2003). International NGOs and primary health care in Mozambique: the need for a new model of collaboration. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 56(4), 725-738.
 Yang, F. X., & Lau, V. M. (2015). Does workplace guanxi matter to hotel career success?. International Journal Of Hospitality Management, 4743-53.
 Soo Min, T., & DeNisi, A. S. (2005). A local perspective to expatriate success. Academy Of Management Executive, 19(1), 132-146. doi:10.5465/AME.2005.15841966
- The case for gender egalitarianism
- Prestige economies and cultural tightness
- Functional literacy and inclusiveness
- Strength-based approaches to fostering “female” leadership styles
- Humanitarian principles and global egalitarian mindset
The case for gender equality
Although women represent half of the population in education and global workforce at career start and mid-level management, men outnumber women in all sectors’ leadership positions. The role of female talents in future leadership is a critical challenge  for the growth of economies . A study among a big sample across 26 countries found that work-life balance, commitment, and turnover thoughts are related to perceived job autonomy that is, for women, mediated by present gender egalitarianism .
Prestige economies and cultural tightness
Prestige governs economies, causing countries with high expenditure in research and development to have comparatively fewer female members (e.g., Japan with 11.6% female researchers, and only 9.7% professors), while low-expenditure nations (e.g., the Philippines and Thailand employ female researchers beyond 45%) . To stay with the example of Japan, nations with similar challenges related to vocational stereotypes, job availability constraints, traditional bias and a collective mindset, even when not having as much government promotion of female employment as Japan, tend to have fewer women in corporate executive positions. Roibu and Roibu (2017) ascribe this to the strictness of how social and work rules are enforced . Indeed, cultural tightness, i.e., the fierceness of norms, contributes to explaining why some organizations in some countries are less successful in advocating women leadership than others . However, the finding of male domination in higher leadership positions seems to be more generally a phenomenon somewhat independent of nationality, culture, and even legislation for gender equality .
Functional literacy and inclusiveness
Fast technological change can negatively pronounce skill deterioration during work interruption, such as caused by maternity leave . Also, education needs to be carefully analyzed regarding whether it is suited to improve social inclusion or whether, in contrast, aggravates competitive exclusivity . For example, functional literacy programs shouldn’t be designed as a reading and writing capability only, but as emancipatory enablers that integrate reading, writing, and socio-economic and political understanding for democratic participation and the self-efficient creation of social networks and wealth .
Strength-based approaches to fostering “female” leadership styles
Some woman may be more sold on power-promising, rewarding, and recognizing careers  and learn how to play the neo-liberal corporate game. Many, on the other hand, do also keep a philanthropic attitude that might not be come to success in an economy that rewards competition . Leadership styles are evolving though, and the value of emotional intelligence is bringing female leaders, albeit slowly, into pole positions . Strength-based approaches to talent development can help also preserving gender-specific genuineness throughout personal careers .
Humanitarian principles and global “female” mindset
The human species can change its mindset, and a female leadership style based on humanitarian principles might be precisely the fit for an increasingly globalized and cooperating world . Millennial women are expected to have a high interest to play a global role . Already existing transnational women’s movements  may additionally help to boost self-esteem to create more egalitarian local and global environments.
 Andrews, S. (2017). Leadership, EQ, and Gender: Global Strategies for Talent Development. TD: Talent Development, 71(2), 7.
 Roibu, I., & Roibu, P. A. (. (2017). The Differences between Women Executives in Japan and Romania. Oradea Journal Of Business And Economics, Vol 2, Iss 1, Pp 81-90 (2017), (1), 81.
 Halliday, C. S., Paustian-Underdahl, S. C., Ordonez, Z., Rogelberg, S. G., & Zhang, H. (2017). Autonomy as a key resource for women in low gender egalitarian countries: A cross-cultural examination. Human Resource Management, 57(2), 601-615.
 Morley, L. (2014). Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy. Higher Education Research And Development, 33(1), 114-128.
 Toh, S. M., & Leonardelli, G. J. (2013). Cultural constraints on the emergence of women leaders: How global leaders can promote women in different cultures. Organizational Dynamics, 42(3), 191-197. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2013.06.004
 Jung, J. H., & Choi, K. (2009). Technological Change and Returns to Education: The Implications for the S&E Labor Market. Global Economic Review, 38(2), 161-184. doi:10.1080/12265080902891461
 Appleby, Y., & Bathmaker, A. M. (2006). The new skills agenda: increased lifelong learning or new sites of inequality?. British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 703-717.
 Kagitcibasi, C., Goksen, F., & Gulgoz, S. (2005). Functional adult literacy and empowerment of women: Impact of a functional literacy program in Turkey. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(6), 472-489.
 Morley, L. (2016). Troubling intra-actions: gender, neo-liberalism and research in the global academy. Journal Of Education Policy, 31(1), 28-45.
 David, E. (2010). Aspiring to leadership … a woman’s world? An example of developments in France. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, (4), 347. doi:10.1108/13527601011086577
 Garcea, N., Linley, A., Mazurkiewicz, K., & Bailey, T. (2012). Future female talent development. Strategic HR Review, (4), 199. doi:10.1108/14754391211234913
 Werhane, P. H. (2007). Women Leaders in a Globalized World. Journal Of Business Ethics, (4), 425. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9516-z
 Stefanco, C. J. (2017). Beyond Boundaries: Millennial Women and the Opportunities for Global Leadership. Journal Of Leadership Studies, 10(4), 57-62. doi:10.1002/jls.21505
Sea-/Landscape of change (Mathias Sager, oil on canvas, F10 53 x 45.5 cm)
Egocentrism occurs as part of preschoolers’ development in the so-called pre-operational stage and means the inability of a child to differentiate between its own and other people’s thoughts . In other words, children would not realize the suffering of others as such at all . This poses a quite depressive outlook and may not correspond to own experience and observations. Aren’t there more empathy-promising possibilities than such a radical and moral-disabling egocentrism? Is there potential for interventions? And what does animal research tell us?
The question of animal-human similarity is essential to decide whether animals should be treated alike  and whether animals possess rights . What characteristic determines a human being as distinct from animals? What about people with genetic anomalies or other disabilities on the one hand side, and, for example, especially well trained chimpanzees on the other ?
Proponents of animals’ legal status as private property that can be exploited by humans always find new approaches to legitimate the dissimilarity argument like, for example, further experiments designed to identify differences in the perception of pain, which is stimulating additional painful animal research . Evidence from experimental neurological studies of emotional activities shows that intense brain arousal happens in evolutionary shared neural areas that are still common in all mammals. Emotional states matter to animals. It can be easily observed how animals seek rewards and avoid punishments. Such positive and negative learning experiences indicate the existence of psychological and sensitive behavior in all human and non-human mammals .
Especially when fearing punishment, nonhuman and human animals tend to copy the behavior of others . Social learning is vital for the transmission of culture and learning between subjects of high similarity, the so-called assortative social learning, is preferred . The study of conformity has gained popularity in animal research in recent years . Imitation as a social learning mode of animals and humans was already described by Thorndike a couple of centuries ago. Imitative behavior with its high copying accuracy might be essential in cultivating traditions . The limited richness in chimpanzee culture compared to human culture may lie in the higher reliance of children on social rewards while chimpanzees rely more on their own knowledge . There is growing evidence for close analogies of human and chimpanzee social learning and culture .
Some argue that Konrad Lorenz’ study of adaptiveness, i.e., observing stimuli-response behavior in the context of the specific environment (and life experiences , has not been maintained sufficiently in animal research methodology . However, whatever improved scientific methods will reveal, the scientific communities’ and citizens’ judgment regarding which psychological commonalities are of moral relevance and which not, remains an issue that needs careful consideration. We might still not know how inaccurate our understanding of animals’ minds is. Our historically poor understanding  should, in any case, attune us with a rather humble attitude.
Photo credit: tskirde (pixabay.com)
 Bryant, T. (2007). Similarity or Difference as a Basis for Justice: Must Animals be Like Humans to be Legally Protected from Humans [article]. Law And Contemporary Problems, (1), 207.
 Mameli, M., & Bortoletti, L. (2006). Animal Rights, Animal Minds, and Human Mindreading. Journal Of Medical Ethics, (2), 84. doi:10.1136/jme.2005.013086
 Gilsason, B. J., & Meyer, M. (2012). Humans and great apes: A search for truth and ethical principles. Journal Of Animal Law, 81-25.
 Panksepp, J. (2011). Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals. Plos ONE, 6(9), 1-15. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021236
 Lindström, B., & Olsson, A. (2015). Mechanisms of Social Avoidance Learning Can Explain the Emergence of Adaptive and Arbitrary Behavioral Traditions in Humans. Journal Of Experimental Psychology. General, 144(3), 688-703. doi:10.1037/xge0000071
 Katsnelson, E., Lotem, A., & Feldman, M. W. (2014). Assortative social learning and its implications for human (and animal?) societies. Evolution, 68(7), 1894-1906. doi:10.1111/evo.12403
 Claidiere, N., & Whiten, A. (2012). Integrating the Study of Conformity and Culture in Humans and Nonhuman Animals. Psychological Bulletin, 138(1), 126-145.
 Mesoudi, A., Schillinger, K., Lycett, S. J., & Mesoudi, A. (2015). The impact of imitative versus emulative learning mechanisms on artifactual variation: implications for the evolution of material culture. Evolution And Human Behavior, 36(6), 446-455.
 Van Leeuwen, E. C., Call, J., & Haun, D. M. (2014). Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees do. Biology Letters, 10(11), 20140487. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0487
 Whiten, A. (2017). Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee. Annual Review Of Psychology, 68129-154. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010416-044108
 Saraiva, R. S. (2006). Classic ethology reappraised. Behavior & Philosophy, 3489-107.
 Vanderveldt, A., Oliveira, L., & Green, L. (2016). Delay discounting: Pigeon, rat, human—does it matter?. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning And Cognition, 42(2), 141-162. doi:10.1037/xan0000097
Rosa Parks is called a “civil rights pioneer” , an Alabama seamstress who was “sparking the civil rights movement in the United States in the 1960s” [2, p. 184], and a ‘one hit wonder’ who refused in 1955 to give up her seat just because of being tired from shopping . Activists’ security it is essential to declare their protests as rather casual than strategic . Some quote her with “The only tired I was, was tired of giving in,” speaks of a strategic intent though . Some argue that it is incorrect that she was the mother of the Civil Rights Movement; others had resisted before her, and it was Martin Luther King and others who organized the protest against bus segregation . So, what makes Rosa Parks a heroine?
Developmental Psychology and Lifespan Development
Developmental psychology comprises the research of children’s cognitive, societal, and emotive development, and is especially interested in studying how children learn . During the last decades, lifespan developmental psychology became an “independent, interdisciplinary specialization of life sciences” [2, p. 25] that is embracing the developmental stages over a whole lifespan . Lifespan development research seeks insight into the determinants of individuals’ well-being, e.g., ‘successful aging,’ while drawing on traditional developmental psychology’s components of health, cognition, and relationships .
The Role of Culture
The impressive achievements in human collective creation may be seen as essentially the result of social rather than mental capacities . Despite the plethora of cultural psychology research, there remains critique whether culture and context can play the central role in exploring what is influencing social behavior . As a counter-argument some researchers propose the womanist model to overcome the definition of the self as a mere function of culture and societal norms .
Social abilities of children at different development stages have been reported to be comparable . Extending developmental research to life-span theories entailing adulthood and old age, as already proposed by Erikson’s identity development model from 1959 , causes a shift towards increased importance of culture. Developmental neurobiological processes that are more influential in early life stages give way to increased effects from culture and social learning at later life stages . Regarding child development there are increasingly calls for inclusion of, for example, native cultures in research .
Towards Holistic Lifespan Development Psychology Approaches
Jean Piaget’s (1896 – 1994) view that meaning results from physical interaction with the environment could not hinder psychology’s tendential development of an inconsideration of brain and body in mental processes. However, the modern enactivist approach is (again) conceptualizing a close link between organism and environment . Today a more holistic perspective follows earlier research that has focused either internal or exogenic elements in identity development . Contemporary research emphasizes the need to better understand the complex human environment , to examine individual (e.g., gender-specific, but controlled for culture) within-person developmental processes in longitudinal studies , and to capture the more granular day-to-day events’ influence on crucial lifespan factors .
Interdisciplinary Globalization of Lifespan Development Research
Economically developed regions, sometimes referred to as Western countries, make up only 20 percent of the world population while developing economies’ population is even disproportionately continuing to grow. At the same time, economic development in the Non-Western, often collectivist societies are likely to influence the development of related cultures dramatically. Therefore, to understand human developmental, psychology needs to focus more on where the big changes and populations are .
To further integrate all relevant aspects of human development, a closer collaboration between the life course sociology and life span psychology seems to be a promising aspiration . Like the emergence of culture and art marked a new era of Homo sapiens some ten thousand years ago , maybe breakthroughs in understanding human lifespan development related to culture may define next evolutionary steps of humanity.
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 Arnett, J. J. (2012). Human development: A cultural approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
 Gilleard, C., & Higgs, P. (2016). Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction. Sociology, 50(2), 301-315. doi:10.1177/0038038515577906
1. Thought on art/painting
Art can express the inexplicable. That’s a remarkable potential we have because we still can’t explain the most important things, such as why there are ‘good’ and ‘bad,’ and what to do about it. Limitations in expression are limiting the thinking (yes, also this way round). We feel that there is something, somewhere in us, that holds more answers than we can explain with words. Art/painting is a key to the next human breakthrough in consciousness.
2. Most recent paintings
#76 Lake bed (Life water painting series,
Mathias Sager, oil on wood panel, F10 530 x 455)
A life nicely centered between birth and death
As it is acting like knowing its symmetry around a peak
Assuming a ceiling point until which to invest
According to plans for success and wealth
Allowing a balanced ascension and decline
All forming the pyramid of life
A life interestingly gone astray in chaos of time
As it is anticipating what was never expected to occur
Assuming abundance seen as a result of giving
According to teachings for personal growth
Allowing an adventurous dive in uncertainty
All forming the pot of life
As it is
According to nature
All forms of life
Is it a crux
the hierarchical matrix?
Is it a biological gender reflex
to weaken the other sex
for a Rolex?
No, rather a revenge for the monetary fix
caused by the societal greedy X
Is it to apology
the societal partiality?
Is it a gender norm of biography
to deny the opportunity
No, rather a justification for the cultural why
of the exclusivity of the Y
Childhood sickness same as could
Agedness suffer youthful misery
Feeling better than forgetting would
Energize by each breath’s felicity
The fundamental and biggest human problem is that men are ever striving for more profit leading to comparably greater wealth for the purpose of competitive advantage in looking for their wives. It is, therefore, our all responsibility to create the circumstances enabling women to more consequently choose wise and personally rich partners over financially wealthy competitors. If the war against insecurity and for love is matched with courage to more intrinsic satisfaction, no pursuit of material pleasure has to be fought on the physical battlefield anymore. – Mathias Sager
Sing me (Mathias Sager, oil on wood panel, M10, 530×333)
#74 Tokyo heat (Mathias Sager, oil on wood panel, F6 410 x 318)
#69 Queasy feeling (Mathias Sager, Oil color water mixable on wood panel, M20 727X500)
#68 Autumn (Mathias Sager, Oil color water mixable on wood panel, P12 60.6 x 45.5 cm)
#66 Nature fights back (Mathias Sager, Oil colour water mixable on wood panel (F12 60.6 cm x 50.0 cm)
On that summer day I look at the beautiful nature. Becoming aware of the mood it generates, including the emotional dimension of the heart. That is the female part.
I gain so much wisdom and creativity from learning to look at the inner female higher force of creation that is infinitely vibrant, mysterious, and good.
I connect to the always birth giving female energy in order to access my own completeness of creativity. Where I come from I can trust in. For me authentic creation is about co-creating exactly with that source, allowing male and female be natural allies.