Psychological Interactions between Personality and Culture

Individual differences that determine one’s attitudes and behavior may not all be the same across cultures. Although culture is shaping an individual, e.g., through social learning, individual emotional processes remain, which lead people to adapt to and influence their respective cultures differently. For specific and holistic psychological approaches to personality, Western and Eastern (Buddhist) contrasting concepts of the self could be further integrated: Why not argue that “the self needs … Continue reading

Spirituality is required to understand human motivation and personality

Summary. More and more people in many parts of the world are becoming increasingly spiritual but not necessarily religious (Willard & Norenzayan, 2017). As a force urging us to quest for meaning in life, spirituality is considered to be a natural human condition (Kim & Esquivel, 2011) with individual preferences according to personality type (Hall, 2012). Contemporary psychology has to further account for the difference between religiosity and spirituality, as … Continue reading

Being driven or thriving? Sigmund Freud versus Carl Rogers on human motivation

Sigmund Freud suggests inborn mental processes, the id, which represents an unconscious and irrational force along the sexual development from childhood to grown-up personality (Ziegler, 2002). Freud used the term ‘drive’ to explain the unconscious triggers causing the variety of human behavior (Gillespie, 2014). It is the superego’s function to consciously guide socially compatible actions in a person’s hedonistic pursuit of pleasure (Cooper, 2010). If drive appetite is not satisfied … Continue reading

Timeless Kindness (From ‘What You Can Find on the Other Side of the World’)

Evan Esar, a 20th-century American humorist and author aptly put that “Character is what you have left when you’ve lost everything you can lose.” When you have lost everything you can lose and therefore are being left without any proof of material or social power, you can’t identify yourself other than with your mere actions and with how you treat people. Would that be a frightening expropriation and dis-empowerment or … Continue reading

A holistic career progress examination

A holistic perspective on career reflection A holistic career examination implies that the development that has led to the current situation, as well as a future outlook, shall be taken into account in a reflective way.  A whole person approach includes personal traits and socio-cognitive facets. Personal identity extends to life-story considerations, cultural context, and life purpose (Nilsson, 2014). Besides using the biopsychosocial model, biographical learning provides for a concept … Continue reading

Holistic approach to change behavior (e.g., towards a smoke-free identity)

Overview This article is distinguishing holism from reductionist concepts and critically analyzes the application of holism in the mental health topic of long-term smoking cessation. By identifying some current state indicators the article suggests a definition of a holistic approach going forward. The effective maintenance of long-term nicotine abstinence is considered to be positively influenced by applying an extended biopsychosocial model that also includes cultural and world-view beliefs of personalities … Continue reading