Tag Archives: Science

New Terms (of Awareness Intelligence)

If open enough, one encounters ideas, even new ones, for which even the words are missing. If one tries to name these ideas aptly, our spelling is doubted. Clearly, the monopoly of defining terms and declaring important existing ideas dictates and those who do not comply are left as irrelevant behind search queries as unfound. For my part, I also help innovative, original ideas to exist, which have not (yet) received the favor of general knowledge; for there could be very important ones among them. That is why I am not afraid to create and use new, little known, and unpopular language. Have fun with it!

  1. Awareness Intelligence
  2. Awarialand
  3. Bent time
  4. Circumthoughts
  5. Extuition
  6. Humantime
  7. Socio-temporal matrix
  8. Three beasts of unawareness
  9. Three doors to the soul
  10. Thoughtthinking
  11. Trinity Warriors
  12. White holes
  13. World of red
  1. Awareness Intelligence

Like Relativity theory is essential to Physics, Awareness Intelligence guides a new understanding of the mental world. Contemporary issues such as health risks, conflicts, and inequality do point to a single most critical cause: Unawareness of lack of awareness. Awareness Intelligence is a specific constellation of ‘awareness about awareness’ and represents the break-through decoding of a socio-temporal structure of the human soul.

Without consciousness, we cannot think any thought. Without awareness, we cannot create meaning from our thoughts. Non-aware thinking (while it can be still “5-sensory”-conscious) is random, often problematically emotion-driven, and potentially confusing. Awareness Intelligence is about the intelligence of creating meaning in one’s mentalizing and about the intelligence of self-generating useful thinking through awareness. Such meaning- and useful (wholesome) thinking can be best described with a worldview consisting of a specific mental schema as possible to visualize with the socio-temporal matrix (see explanation for this term below).

Changes in a person’s life situation can rearrange one’s mental socio-temporal schema in such a way that new coherences emerge. A person may become enabled to follow coherently through on the chosen/valued temporal or social focus, which might represent a form of versatility and agency. Creating more coherence and, therefore, also more agency might be a learnable capacity. The ability to reflect on and mentally cover the whole socio-temporal scope of the world makes Awareness Intelligence. 

For a starting point to the extensive research and writing behind Awareness Intelligence, I recommend:

2. Awarialand

Life is proving us constantly that peace is possible to the extent human awareness is embracing it. Consequently, if all the world is scoped-in for ambitions of peace, a peaceful world indeed becomes attainable. An awaria can come through the dissolution of the illusion of separated and separating personal and societal identities, which would not be bounded together by life across times. It will be a future world in which all human beings are aware of their shared awareness of life. Thanks to intelligent awareness, the relational and temporal modes of life will be better understood, accepted as an essential truth, and consequently being acted upon for individual well-being, collective thriving, and the common good. Awarian life is possible thanks to the systematic and continuous practice of Awareness Intelligence, the chief liberating and humanitarian enabler of a new age.

3. Bent time

Part of Awareness Intelligence is the ability to mentally stretch to both sides of the circle of life. For our eternal soul that is a breeze, but for our human lifetime awareness and related thinking, it is a gymnastic split we need to practice for. All-inclusive and endless knowing requires to mentally stretch enough into the time before our physical birth, as well as into the time after our death to bend the timeline into a circle of perpetual and unified life. We have to sense our soul-relatedness to the immaterial consciousness to detach ourselves from the illusion of time that is only bound to objects such as our bodies. Despite the need to handle practical time for physical experiences, one needs to connect to the timeless sphere of universal intelligence. It is our human capacity to be aware of this co-existence of practical and universal, cosmic time; the awareness of the parallel truth of life, life’s immortal intelligence that breathes the energy vibrations of consciousness even into our objectified temporal bodily manifestation.

4. Circumthoughts

Human thought reaches farther than the sight of the eye. As thoughts and not the eyes create our circumstances, we should rather be aware of circumthoughts. Thought encircles all there is, ourselves, our relationships, and anybody imaginable anywhere in the world; a social panorama the eye is incapable of grasping. Also, thought encompasses eternity of time. We may not see immediate consequences of all thinking in the visible world, but our soul’s quality of inspiration and connectedness highly depends on the collective consciousness whose condition is influenced by all thoughts there are; of course, including ours. Thoughts are determining our spirituality, which has no contentual barriers and therefore is the cosmos of all. Think awareness-intelligently to contribute with full positive capacity and energetic attitude to this spiritual realm, which in turn, is the source and fuel of your and all further life as well. Our circumthoughts, not circumstances, represent the real context of conscious life.

For the full article:

5. Extuition

Extuition is the illusion that we choose with intellectual logic, the belief that our believes are not believes but proven when they can be seen with our eyes. Extuition is the opposite of intuition, which is the inner voice that (if it is real intuition) comes from our eternal and universal source intelligence.

6. Humantime

Having witnessed times of building war forces in spacetime, the time for exploring love in humantime has come. Awareness is not everything, but without awareness there is nothing. When consciousness becomes aware, when awakening becomes intelligent, and when balance becomes harmonious, humantime has begun. Think yourself aware, which is best done through self-reflection about ones socio-temporal mental worldview schemas (socio-/human – temporal/time).

7. Socio-temporal matrix (incl., intra-past, inter-present, extra-future modes)

The tripartite socio-temporal matrix of Awareness Intelligence provides for a mental reference system that empowers for spiritual exploration and practical application of meaning, love, and compassion that is teachable to anybody for increased well-being, organization thriving, and the common good alike.

The socio-temporal matrix was developed to assist in self-reflection as a visual guide to explore thought patterns in terms of the most essential dimensions of human psychology: the social and temporal world. These two dimensions put together in a coordinate system (x axis = temporal dimension; y axis = social dimension) form the novel socio-temporal matrix of mental worldview schemas. Each field of the matrix represents a building block of a person’s socio-temporal mental schema. In other words, these are the possible spots of socio-temporal thinking. Its configuration determines one’s life significantly as

humans are mind-wandering up to half of their waking time.

For more details, please see

8. Three beasts of unawareness

Expressed with mental worldview schemas, the three beasts of unawareness stand for the psychologically unhealthy spots in the coordinate system of the socio-temporal matrix. One beasts represents the possible ties of the past that create, e.g., loss of self, stagnation, and regret. The beast of the present exemplifies hurdles to awareness such as increasing distraction, e.g., through technology, and possible absorption from the world through meditative retreat into oneself. Last, the beast that endangers a fulfilling future, seduces through egoistic fears and over-identification with societal and cultural expectations. The three beasts of unawareness, in that sense, signify the antidotes to the healthy modes of Awareness Intelligence.

Here’s a poem about the beasts:

9. Three doors to the soul

When we are not inheriting the past and instead do the work ourselves, we are fit for giving our best. This is the first of the three doors to the soul. Secondly, overcoming social anxiety through compassion leads to kindness that is as timeless as unconditional love. Such genuine kindness is the ticket to free from time and to access eternity. The third door to the soul opens when we follow the human calling of service to all, regardless of compensation and pulled by true inspiration.

10. Thoughtthinking

The indefinite power of the human soul and mind can be unlocked as human beings evolve from doing ‘sightseeing’ to ‘thoughtthinking.’ This will intensify the understanding and appreciation of the mental world and propel the development of Awareness Intelligence. No field of science or any advanced forms of artificial intelligence have been able to solve the disconnect between the people that causes all the issues of inner and outer conflict. It’s the power of awareness that has the potential to link separateness together and to unify. It’s time to become more aware of our absence of awareness, the only way to solve the remaining problems of humanity, which are all due to shallow lives lost in thoughtless wandering.

11. Trinity warriors

The trinity warriors I have created are non-violent ‘fighters’ for Awareness Intelligence that comprises the three treasures of Taoism:

  • MODERATION leads to generosity (All are born the same as humans. There is no superiority of anyone, just different cultures, and societal norms. -> I’m thinking about my INTRAPERSONAL PAST. Who am I really regardless of my upbringing?)
  • COMPASSION leads to courage (Unconditional love removes fear from pressure, allowing to be oneself and even unliked amidst the expectations of others. -> I’m thinking about my INTERPERSONAL PRESENT where I share the present moment with others; are these free from judgment of the past and expectations into the future?)
  • HUMILITY leads to leadership (Benevolence and responsibility benefit all humanity rather than ego-inflated ambitions. -> I’m thinking about the EXTRAPERSONAL FUTURE that will outlast my lifetime. Am I leaving the next generation a better world?)

You can admire some of the trinity warriors and their awareness-intelligent qualities here:

12. White holes

How convenient that science creates formulas suggesting black holes resembling so much its sponsoring society of economic institutions and politics towards which all material gravitates. But maybe this is yet another cheat pack to distract from the truth? I know it’s trendy to cite Einstein, yet humanity hasn’t managed to leave its Newtonian world. While black holes support the narratives of the necessity of a humanity exposed to fear, greed, and destruction, I prefer a more positive worldview of human potential that educates about white holes (if it needs to be called a ‘hole’ at all). We don’t need to defend a taking dark warfully; instead, we needed to welcome the giving bright peacefully. Why is fear of material loss instilled instead of a notion of an infinite expansion of spiritual life?! The latter is more realistic (i.e., durable, constant, real). Ever-evolving life spirit and love have proven that they can’t be taken by a material-sucking black hole.

13. World of red

As opposed to the world of blue, red is the color code for aggressive emotional strain. A world of red visually depicts the endless strong hunger/greed of consumption society. On the other hand, a world of blue would mean spiritual strength of a blue water’s depth.

HOW SOCIO-TEMPORAL COHERENCE BUILDS AGENCY AND WISDOM

(I do not expect this text to be (easily) accessible to people, especially to who have not read previous texts on Awareness Intelligence. It is also not posted for likes. It is part of my practice and a gift to publish it without oversimplification anyway.)

Changes in a person’s life situation can rearrange one’s mental socio-temporal schema in such a way that new coherences emerge. One may coherently consider the self in the whole range of time to create temporal coherence. Or, one may add the intra-personal to the already prioritized inter- and extra-personal in the present to attain social coherence. Thereupon, a person may become enabled to follow coherently through on the chosen/valued temporal or social focus, which might represent a form of versatility and agency. Indeed, agency can be understood as the deliberative, reflective activity of a human being in framing, choosing, and executing their action toward a valued goal in a way that is not fully determined by factors and conditions other than their own understanding and reasoning.

Creating more coherence and, therefore, also more agency might be a learnable capacity. For instance, perceived self-efficacy develops through changing one’s patterns of thinking, which could be of the like of, for example, the above-illustrated changes in one’s socio-temporal mental schema.

All possible types (i.e., temporal and social) and sub-types of coherences (i.e., on all three respective levels of each of the temporal and social dimensions) could be observed in the schemas generated by the studies in Awareness Intelligence. Also, the research shows that temporal coherence may be a precondition for social coherence as the latter only existed together with its temporal occurrence: social coherence did not exist in isolation. In any case, both social and temporal structures are crucial for mentally modeling the world and for becoming a temporally integrated and socially whole agent in life.

Wisdom could be defined as the consequence of applying intelligence for the benefit of the broader good that is attained through adaptation to pre-existing, interaction with current, and creation of new surroundings, all in the sense of equilibrating limited and expanded time. Applied to a socio-temporal worldview as presented for the first time in the studies of Awareness Intelligence, these elements of wisdom would be temporal coherence through learning from the past, interacting with the present in a socially balanced way, and solving problems to creating a future for all. Further, wisdom emerges from balancing intra-, inter-, and extra-personal awareness and engagement. In terms of the socio-temporal framework, this stresses the benefit of social coherences. In that sense, the ability to reflect on and mentally cover the whole socio-temporal scope of the world makes Awareness Intelligence. 

#art #artist #kunst #künstler #painting #Gemälde #acrylicpainting #modernart #modernekunst #contemporaryart #zeitgenössischekunst #psychology #philosophy #Psychologie #Philosophie #cuttingedgescience #research #awareness #Bewusstseinsintelligenz #awarenessintelligence


WIE SOZIO-TEMPORALE KOHÄRENZ HANDLUNGSFÄHIGKEIT UND WEISHEIT BILDET

(Ich erwarte nicht, dass dieser Text (leicht) für Leute zugänglich ist, spezielle nicht für diejenigen, die keine früheren Texte über Bewusstseinsintelligenz gelesen haben. Er wird auch nicht für Likes gepostet. Es ist Teil meiner Praxis und des Geschenks, ihn sowieso ohne Vereinfachung zu veröffentlichen.)

Veränderungen in der Lebenssituation einer Person können das mentale sozio-zeitliche Schema so umordnen, dass neue Zusammenhänge entstehen. Man kann das Selbst im gesamten Zeitbereich kohärent betrachten, um zeitliche Kohärenz zu schaffen. Oder man kann das Intrapersonale dem bereits priorisierten Inter- und Extrapersonalen in der Gegenwart hinzufügen, um soziale Kohärenz zu erreichen. Daraufhin kann eine Person in die Lage versetzt werden, den gewählten/bewerteten zeitlichen oder sozialen Fokus kohärent zu verfolgen, was eine Form von Vielseitigkeit und Handlungsfähigkeit darstellen kann. In der Tat kann Handlungsfähigkeit als die abwägende, reflexive Aktivität eines Menschen verstanden werden, der sein Handeln in Richtung eines geschätzten Ziels in einer Weise gestaltet, wählt und ausführt, die nicht vollständig von anderen Faktoren und Bedingungen als seinem eigenen Verständnis und Denken bestimmt wird.

Mehr Kohärenz und damit auch mehr Handlungsfähigkeit zu schaffen, scheint eine erlernbare Fähigkeit zu sein. Zum Beispiel entwickelt sich wahrgenommene Selbstwirksamkeit durch die Veränderung der eigenen Denkmuster, die beispielsweise den oben dargestellten Veränderungen des sozio-zeitlichen mentalen Schemas ähnlich sein können.

Alle möglichen Typen (d. h. zeitliche und soziale) und Unterarten von Kohärenz (d. h. auf allen drei jeweiligen Ebenen jeder der zeitlichen und sozialen Dimensionen) konnten in den Schemata beobachtet werden, die durch die Studien in Bewusstseinsintelligenz generiert wurden. Die Forschung zeigt auch, dass zeitliche Kohärenz eine Voraussetzung für soziale Kohärenz sein kann, da letztere nur zusammen mit ihrem zeitlichen Auftreten existierte: soziale Kohärenz existierte nicht isoliert. In jedem Fall sind sowohl soziale als auch zeitliche Strukturen entscheidend, um die Welt mental zu modellieren und ein zeitlich integrierter und sozial ganzer Akteur im Leben zu werden.

Weisheit könnte als die Folge der Anwendung von Intelligenz zum Wohle des Allgemeinwohls definiert werden, die durch Anpassung an bereits vorhandene, Interaktion mit der aktuellen und Schaffung neuer Umgebungen im Sinne eines Ausgleichs von begrenzter und erweiterter Zeit erreicht wird. Angewandt auf eine sozio-temporale Weltsicht, wie sie in den Studien in Bewusstseinsintelligenz ein erstes Mal vorgestellt wird, wären diese Elemente der Weisheit zeitliche Kohärenz durch Lernen aus der Vergangenheit, Interaktion mit der Gegenwart in einer sozial ausgewogenen Weise und Lösung von Problemen, um eine Zukunft für alle zu schaffen. Darüber hinaus entsteht Weisheit aus der Balance zwischen intra-, inter- und extra-personalem Bewusstsein und Engagement. Im Hinblick auf den sozio-zeitlichen Rahmen betont dies den Nutzen sozialer Kohärenz. In diesem Sinne macht die Fähigkeit, den gesamten sozio-zeitlichen Bereich der Welt zu reflektieren und mental zu erfassen, Bewusstseinsintelligenz aus.

#art #artist #kunst #künstler #painting #Gemälde #acrylicpainting #modernart #modernekunst #contemporaryart #zeitgenössischekunst #psychology #philosophy #Psychologie #Philosophie #cuttingedgescience #research #awareness #Bewusstseinsintelligenz #awarenessintelligence

THE SOCIO-TEMPORAL MATRIX

Painting THE SOCIO-TEMPORAL MATRIX (M. Sager, 2021. Acrylic on canvas, 100 x 100 cm)

THE STRUCTURE AND DIMENSIONS OF LIFE

Often breakthrough findings are the simplest ones. If something can’t be explained easily, it is not well understood. If spirituality is advertised as requiring miraculous super-powers hold by few, it might be spiritual elitism that is not for all of us. An awareness-intelligent understanding of spirituality may be considered prosaic considering its modest level of mysticism involved, and yet it is whole and infinite, full of all the beauty and joy that life has to offer. Spirituality is simple and pure humaneness, it is the ultimate mental playground of human realization. We are all spiritual beings; we just need to be aware of and practicing it.

To organize our thinking about life, mind, and soul is not creating a false god. Neither has a logical arrangement have to deteriorate into a dogmatic belief system. Indeed, what wisdom means for one person may have a completely different meaning and quality for somebody else. What feels right at one time becomes obsolete later on. It’s of limited usefulness to name a spiritual authority or to lay down religious rules and rituals if not for institutional interests. The same is true for so-called consciousness-enhancing substances. However, there is a universal structure of life that we should all be aware of.

THE SOCIO-TEMPORAL MATRIX OF MENTAL WORLDVIEW SCHEMAS

A person’s worldview, i.e., the schema through which the world is experienced, influences one’s well-being. Cloninger’s ‘unity of being’ represents a model of a coherent self-concept that consists of the self, others, and the world as a whole and has an impact on the degree of self-reliance, hope, the ability to cope, compassion, and cooperativeness. In that sense, the socio-temporal matrix as a framework to identify and visualize worldviews can facilitate the exploration of similar possible psychological effects related to a person’s meaning-making and well-being through socio-temporal worldviews.

Figure 1. The socio-temporal matrix of worldview schemas

The novel socio-temporal matrix is derived as described in the following and as visualized by Figure 1. On the x-axis of the model, there are three variables of the temporal dimension. More specifically, this horizontal axis partitions itself, in the order from left to right, into the ‘past,’ ‘present,’ and ‘future.’ The vertical y-axis of the matrix contains the three variables of the social dimension. Starting from the intersection with the horizontal axis, which represents time as explained, the first third of the vertical line (y-axis) shall be labeled ‘intra-’ that is short for ‘intra-personal. The next, middle part of the vertical axis becomes ‘inter-,‘which stands for the ‘inter-personal’ scope. The third and uppermost vertical section is the ‘extra-,‘ which signifies ‘extra-personal.’ Similar to a coordinate system, through these two tripartite grid lines, a matrix can be formed (see Figure 1). When using the vertical and horizontal axis’ labels in the same manner as the numerical coordinates of a map, or the letters and numbers of a chessboard, it is possible to identify and navigate the three times three – in total nine – fields of the matrix (see Figure 1).

The nine fields of the matrix will be used to inquire about socio-temporal mental schemas. An individual’s worldview schema is expected to consist of a specific set of matrix fields, depending on whether one’s belief system emphasizes certain socio-temporal mental states over others. For example, one may emphasize other-related extra-past (e.g., socio-cultural upbringing), behave in an inter-present, rather relationship-dominated way, while focusing, however, on a self-oriented intra-future. Such a socio-temporal mental worldview schema might link to specific meanings as, for example, a more independent (i.e., denoted by the intra-past instead of an inter- or extra-past) and other-oriented (i.e., depicted as the extra-future rather than an inter- or intra-future) cognitive socio-temporal worldview preference.

Regarding the above-mentioned social dimension, the intra-personal, inter-personal, and extra-personal factors have been found to influence human perception, experience, and the capacity to manage life areas such as risks. Intra-personal means the thoughts and beliefs related to the individual herself. A definition of inter-personal comes from those thoughts and beliefs, which are related to personal interactions with others. Extra-personal can be defined as a social scope that goes beyond the direct interaction with others. Extra-personal beliefs are related to long-term interests such as social needs that surpass intra- and inter-personal benefits. They can comprise social relationships beyond group memberships, i.e., being a member of the whole human species.

What’s your socio-temporal schema constellation? What combinations of meaningful and often frequented social and temporal aspects within the socio-temporal matrix do emerge and predominate in your mind-wanderings?

You can also discover the adventure of your socio-temporal worldview here:

A Universalist’s Perspective

Painting UNIVERSALIST PERSPECTIVE (M. Sager, 2021. Acrylic on canvas, 60 x 80 cm)

THE UNIVERSALIST PERSPECTIVE T-Shirt Unisex Softstyle T-Shirt (Awareness Intelligence, 2021 Edition)

Tunnel view on life

Single-mindedness is praised and rewarded everywhere in science as well as in business and private matters. If integrating more aspects of life into one’s lifestyle, one is considered unfocused and not knowing what he/she wants. People typically educate and develop in clearly predefined, straight career paths, and socially common and therefore accepted ways in which people all too often assume a tunnel view on life so they can be put into one-themed, clearly labeled boxes.

The Last Universalist

As French Henri Poincare described so well “Science is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.” In the context of understanding life and its signification for human existence overall, some dots undoubtedly remain unconnected. Henri Poincare who died in 1912, is considered the ‘The Last Universalist’ in mathematics since he mastered all the disciplines at once. If today’s specialized scientific fields work in silos and are hindering inter-disciplinary cooperation, it might indeed be the case that a lot of knowledge is not brought into a more meaningful context and does not result into a house of wisdom that benefits and protects all humanity in a broader sense.

Missing systematic management of the mind

Project and productivity management skills to organize business processes are taught everywhere and on all levels of the education system. Surprisingly, the same diligence is not applied to the mental world. How can we think about our thinking and improve it for our own and others’ well-being? How can we critically check our awareness to make sure we don’t miss any essential aspects? The answers to these questions determine how we care for the world, and yet they are not discussed systematically enough in school. To quote the Buddha, “All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become.” I think it is overdue to build wholesome human attitudes, which is to think more and in different ways about how we develop and use awareness.

The benefit of mental triathlons

Awareness Intelligence is like a mental triathlon, or a triptych in art. It is not just one focus of mind, but a threefold set of socio-temporal perspectives that form a person’s worldview (for more on socio-temporal mental schemas see the Awareness Intelligence literature on https://mathias-sager.com/tag/awareness-intelligence/). It is to be hoped that one-sided extremism evolves into inherently diverse lifestyles. We need monks who are not only wise, but fit and socially engaging. We need physically fit intellectuals who care, and intellectual and kind sportspersons. We need leaders who serve on the ground of honest servant leadership style based on what’s healthy for human beings. And, we need real, fair competition that rewards not only the smart, but especially the kind.

Horizontal integration for more relevance

For a more harmonious and wholesome lifestyle it is to hope that personality is understood to not only develop vertically (i.e., into a specialization in one field), but horizontally (i.e., integrating multiple fields) to become aware of broader contexts, interdependencies, and connections across everything and all that is relevant.

Using socio-temporal mental maps to navigate people’s worldviews

This article is about the fascinating science of mental schemas and worldviews and how they relate to a person’s meaning and well-being. You can try out the related self-reflection tool, an exciting psycho-philosophical adventure, at www.mathias-sager.com.

Globalization has caused people to travel and migrate, buy products across borders, and inform themselves through global media. This strongly influences people’s identity and their psychological construction of the world (Reese, Rosenmann, & McGarty, 2015). It’s also a person’s internal system of meaning-making, respectively worldview that determines the scope and quality of capacities like the empathy one experiences (Nelems, 2017). Worldviews also help to interpret the world meaningfully, which allows us to better handle suffering (Yang, Liu, Sullivan, & Pan, 2016). Consequently, any investigation on how worldviews influence meaning/understanding seeks to derive insights that are beneficial for the individual well-being and the common good alike.

Worldviews are arrangements of beliefs used to create meaning of one’s experience of reality (Koltko-Rivera, 2004). From a cognitive perspective, worldviews involve ‘thinking systems’ including intricate patterns of thoughts and beliefs that integrate as an interactive whole (Davis, & Stroink, 2016). Beliefs are mental constellations that stand for relationships between categories, which determine how one experiences the world (Chen, Fok, Bond, & Matsumoto, 2006). For example, social worldview schemas would represent an individual’s beliefs about the social world (Sibley, & Duckitt, 2009). To mentally build a worldview, the abilities to learn and imagine, all of which require reflection, are essential (Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010). And humans do reflect on the continuum of time, a mental process that involves thinking about the past, present, and future (Vannucci, Peagatti, Chiorri, & Brugger, 2019).

The before-mentioned schematic concepts of beliefs can be called ‘meaning frameworks’ (Taves et al., 2018). Such a meaning framework is presented by Friedman (2018), who mentions two fundamental dimensions related to worldview, which are space and time. Neuroimaging research agrees that psychological orientation bases on the relationship between one’s behavior and the aspects of space, time, and people (Peer, Salomon, Goldberg, Blanke, & Arzy, 2015). Van Dijk and Withagen (2016) state that learning, specifically, meaning-making requires contextualization and a broadening of both the spatial and temporal scope of the individual.

Regarding the above-mentioned social dimension (Peer et al., 2015), the intra-personalinter-personal, and extra-personal factors have been found to influence human perception, experience, and the capacity to manage life areas such as risks (Jayasuriya, Whittaker, Halim, & Matineau, 2012). Intra-personal means the thoughts and beliefs related to the individual herself (Jayasuriya et al., 2012). A definition of inter-personal comes from those thoughts and beliefs, which are related to personal interactions with others (Jayasuriya et al., 2012). Extra-personal can be defined as a social scope that goes beyond the direct interaction with others (Jayasuriya et al., 2012). Extra-personal beliefs are related to long-term interests such as social needs that surpass intra- and inter-personal benefits (Sternberg, Reznitskaya, & Jarvin, 2007). They can comprise social relationships beyond group memberships, i.e., being a member of the whole human species (Leary, Tipsord, & Tate, 2008).

Vannucci et al. (2019) mention that the temporal dimension of reflective thought is dependent on spatial context (i.e., including places close and far, the world, and the cosmos), but these researchers do not specifically focus the interpersonal, respectively social component of context. Similarly, Sullivan, Stewart, and Diefendorf (2015) see time and space as the critical variables for human cognition. Still, their model fails to consider the impact of the social dimension on perception too. To clarify the construction of worldviews, novel Socio-Temporal Mental Schema Analysis (STMSA) tool, on the other hand, is specifying ‘spatial’ as the ‘social’ attributes of the intra-, inter-, and extra-personal.

Nilsson (2014a) suggests that a person’s worldview, i.e., the schema through which the world is experienced, influences one’s well-being. Cloninger’s ‘unity of being’ represents a model of a coherent self-concept that consists of the self, others, and the world as a whole and has an impact on the degree of self-reliance, hope, the ability to cope, compassion, and cooperativeness (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2016). In that sense, the socio-temporal matrix (see Figure 1) researched, validated and developed as a framework to identify and visualize worldviews, can facilitate the exploration of similar possible psychological effects related to a person’s meaning-making and well-being through socio-temporal worldviews. Therefore, it is to understand individuals’ socio-temporal worldview ontology through introspective information gathering (Nilsson, 2014b).

socio-temporal matrix

Figure 1. The socio-temporal matrix of worldview schemas

The novel socio-temporal matrix is derived as described in the following and as visualized by Figure 1. On the x-axis of the model, there are three variables of the temporal dimension. More specifically, this horizontal axis partitions itself, in the order from left to right, into the ‘past,’ ‘present,’ and ‘future.’ The vertical y-axis of the matrix contains the three variables of the social dimension. Starting from the intersection with the horizontal axis, which represents time as explained, the first third of the vertical line (y-axis) shall be labeled ‘intra-’ that is short for ‘intra-personal. The next, middle part of the vertical axis becomes ‘inter-,‘which stands for the ‘inter-personal’ scope. The third and uppermost vertical section is the ‘extra-,‘ which signifies ‘extra-personal.’ Similar to a coordinate system, through these two tripartite grid lines, a matrix can be formed (see Figure 1). When using the vertical and horizontal axis’ labels in the same manner as the numerical coordinates of a map, or the letters and numbers of a chessboard, it is possible to identify and navigate the three times three – in total nine – fields of the matrix (see Figure 1). 

The nine fields of the matrix will be used to inquire about socio-temporal mental schemas. An individual’s worldview schema is expected to consist of a specific set of matrix fields, depending on whether one’s belief system emphasizes certain socio-temporal mental states over others. For example, one may emphasize other-related extra-past (e.g., socio-cultural upbringing), behave in an inter-present, rather relationship-dominated way, while focusing, however, on a self-oriented intra-future. Such a socio-temporal mental worldview schema might link to specific meanings as, for example, a more independent (i.e., denoted by the intra-past instead of an inter- or extra-past) and other-oriented (i.e., depicted as the extra-future rather than an inter- or intra-future) cognitive socio-temporal worldview preference.

Socio-temporal schema constellations are expected to emerge from combinations of meaningful and often frequented social and temporal aspects within the socio-temporal matrix. The novel Socio-Temporal Mental Schemas Analysis (STMSA) tool investigates users’ worldviews based on their related schema constellations. The results can serve the users’ as a mental map to support the navigation of socio-temporal worldviews. As such, the matrix proves to be useful for self-reflection and fostering awareness about oneself and others.

References:

Chen, S. X., Fok, H. K., Bond, M. H., & Matsumoto, D. (2006). Personality and beliefs about the world revisited: Expanding the nomological network of social axioms. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(2), 201–211

Davis, A. C., & Stroink, M. L. (2016). The Relationship between Systems Thinking and the New Ecological Paradigm. Systems Research & Behavioral Science, 33(4), 575–586.

Friedman, H. L. (2018). Transpersonal psychology as a heterodox approach to psychological science: Focus on the construct of self-expansiveness and its measure. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 230–242.

Garcia, D., & Rosenberg, P. (2016). Out of Flatland: The Role of the Notion of a Worldview in the Science of Well-being.

Jayasuriya, R., Whittaker, M., Halim, G., & Matineau, T. (2012). Rural health workers and their work environment: the role of inter-personal factors on job satisfaction of nurses in rural Papua New Guinea. BMC Health Services Research, 12, 156.

Killingsworth, M. A., & Gilbert, D. T. (2010). A Wandering Mind Is an Unhappy Mind. Science, 330(6006), 932

Koltko-Rivera, M. E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology, 8(1), 3–58.

Leary, M. R., Tipsord, J. M., & Tate, E. B. (2008). Allo-inclusive identity: Incorporating the social and natural worlds into one’s sense of self. In H. A.Wayment & J. J.Bauer (Eds.), Transcending self-interest: Psychological explorations of the quiet ego (pp. 137–147). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 10.

Nelems, R. J. (2017). What Is This Thing Called Empathy? At the Interface / Probing the Boundaries, (92), 17–38.

Nilsson, A. (2014a). A non-reductive science of personality, character, and well-being must take the person’s worldview into account. Frontiers in Psychology.

Nilsson, A. (2014b). Personality psychology as the integrative study of traits and worldviews. New Ideas in Psychology, 18.

Peer, M., Salomon, R., Goldberg, I., Blanke, O., & Arzy, S. (2015). Brain system for mental orientation in space, time, and person. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112, 11072–11077.

Reese, G., Rosenmann, A., & McGarty, C. (2015). Globalisation and global concern: Developing a social psychology of human responses to global challenges. European Journal Of Social Psychology, 45(7), 799-805.

Sibley, C., & Duckitt, J. (2009). Big-Five Personality, Social Worldviews, and Ideological Attitudes: Further Tests of a Dual Process Cognitive-Motivational Model. Journal of Social Psychology, 149(5), 545–561.

Sternberg, R. J., Reznitskaya, A., & Jarvin, L. (2007). Teaching for Wisdom: What Matters Is Not Just What Students Know, but How They Use It. London Review of Education, 5(2), 143–158.

Taves, A., Asprem, E., Ihm, E. (2018). Psychology, meaning making, and the study of worldviews: Beyond religion and non-religion. (2018). Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, (3), 207.

Van Dijk, L., & Withagen, R. (2016). Temporalizing agency: Moving beyond on- and offline cognition. Theory And Psychology, 26(1), 5-26.

Vannucci, M., Pelagatti, C., Chiorri, C., & Brugger, P. (2019). Space–time interaction: visuo-spatial processing affects the temporal focus of mind wandering. Psychological Research, (4), 698.

Yang, Q., Liu, S., Sullivan, D., & Pan, S. (2016). Interpreting suffering from illness: The role of culture and repressive suffering construal. Social Science & Medicine, 160, 67–74.

Missing systematics and links in science

Chapter 8 – Missing systematics and links in science

mathias sager Awareness Intelligence
mathias sager Awareness Intelligence

In most of today’s scientific research, I find it still difficult to see how the link between the universe and human psychology is made. It seems like current awareness is not up to seeing the study of the human mind being first and uttermost linked to overarching factors such as

The human soul that is connected to the universal consciousness and cosmic time.

mathias sager (Awareness Intelligence)

As French Henri Poincare described so well “Science is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones; but an accumulation of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.” In the context of understanding life and its signification for human existence overall, some dots undoubtedly remain unconnected. Henri Poincare who died in 1912, is considered the ‘The Last Universalist’ in mathematics since he mastered all the disciplines at once. If today’s specialized scientific fields work in silos and are hindering inter-disciplinary cooperation, it might indeed be the case that

A lot of knowledge is not brought into a more meaningful context and does not result into a house of wisdom that benefits and protects all humanity in a broader sense.

mathias sager (Awareness Intelligence)

Project and productivity management skills to organize business processes are taught everywhere and on all levels of the education system. Surprisingly, the same diligence is not applied to the mental world.

  • How can we think about our thinking and improve it for our own and others’ well-being?
  • How can we critically check our awareness to make sure we don’t miss any essential aspects?

The answers to these questions determine how we care for the world, and yet they are not discussed systematically enough in school. To quote the Buddha, “All that we are is the result of what we have thought. The mind is everything. What we think we become.” I think it is overdue to build wholesome human attitudes, which is to

Think more and in different ways about how we develop and use awareness.

mathias sager (Awareness Intelligence)

So far:

Chapter 1 – Life’s introduction of Awareness Intelligence

Chapter 2 – The awarenessland of Awaria

Chapter 3 – Your life that is humantime

Chapter 4 – Consciousness, awareness, and social intelligence

Chapter 5 – Broadening the social scope

Chapter 6 – Increasing the attention span

Chapter 7 – Distraction of the mass

Coming next:

Chapter 9 – Spiritual consumerism and mystification of spiritualism

To be free requires freedom to learn

Thankful for another night being free to learn.

mathias-sager-freedom to learn

 

Slides:

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The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I can change. – Carl Rogers

10 takeaways from the 80% is Psychology session ‘Learning and motivation’. Tokyo, November 7, 2018.  

Presentation and discussions:

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Beyond the brain (Takeaways from 80% is Psychology)

Takeaways from our event on October 24th, 2018. Thanks for the discussions. Please see also https://www.facebook.com/colorfulgrowth/

Course 1 Session 4 Brain and Memory in Learning_v04_TAKEAWAYS

1.Know that the brain has different chemical processes for addictive pleasure experiences (neurotransmitter is dopamine) versus more long-term, empathic, and self-sufficient happiness-related behavior (neurotransmitter is serotonin).

2.Reduce distractions, especially to avoid over-dependence (addiction) to technology and social networks that interrupt your attention and learning.

3.Increase for how long you are able to stay offline and/or exclusively focused for better learning results.

4.Train your brain through exercising, diet, sleep, and alternative learning strategies.

5.Recognize how your consciousness requires the joint operation of brain, body, and the world. Brain activities may be necessary, but not sufficient preconditions for human behavior.

6.Experiment with stretching your sense of time and thinking of cyclical time. The soul/spirit wants to expand. As the earth is not a plate where you can fall off the edges, time may not be a simple line with birth and life ‘abysses.’

7.Do not fear the future. The brain takes even distantly thought threats for real and causes already now suffering, anxiety, and depression.

8.Do not fear loss. If we are only our physical brain, we don’t need to fear any regrets or pain after death. If there is something more permanent than our brain, death isn’t an existential threat to fear either.

9.Use intuition, imagination, and intention to ‘real-life check’ what really counts in everything you learn: Is it meaningful, unlimited, and purposeful? If not, it’s not worth it.

10.Read to activate your brain, increase the working memory’s capacity, and expand attention span.

 

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Social Learning & Developing a Growth Mindset (7 Takeaways from 80% is Psychology)

Takeaways from our event on October 24th, 2018. Thanks for the discussions. Please see also https://www.facebook.com/colorfulgrowth/

mathias sager psychology social learning growth mindset

Slides:

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Philosophy of Learning TAKEAWAYS 2018/10/17 (80% is Psychology Series)

Takeaways from our event on October 17th, 2018. Thanks for the discussions. For photos, etc., please see https://www.facebook.com/colorfulgrowth/

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Philosophy of Learning (80% is Psychology Series)

Takeaways from our event on October 10th, 2018. Thanks for the discussions.

10 Takeaways Session 01 1.png

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For the Love of Learning

For the love of learning!:-)
October 10th, 19:00 at J-Global, B2 Yaesuguchi Kaikan, 1-7-20 Yaesu, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 〒103-0028
https://www.facebook.com/events/296127901169930/

mathias sager-school-learning-psychology-philosophy-TEASER03.png

“We shouldn’t teach great lessons, we should teach a love of learning.” [- Inspired by B.F. Skinner]

80% is Psychology

School brochure download

mathias sager-school coures_v01

 

Courses Tailored to Your Needs

All courses are based on latest research and consistently assume a cross-cultural and cooperative perspective. The courses aim to equip the participants with practical tools for personal and career success and can be tailored to your needs, on-site and through eLearning.

For increased

  • Self-Efficacy
  • Creativity
  • Innovation

All the lessons are available as focused lectures or interactive workshop and are complemented with accompanying material, further readings, exercises, group works, and quizzes/tests.

Mathias Sager

I’m standing with my name for it.

 

Approach

  • Multi-Disciplinary: Combining knowledge from psychology, art, technology, and business for holistic approaches.
  • Cross-Cultural: Using cross-cultural competencies and agility to bridge cultural gaps for the benefit of our diverse participants.
  • Inter-Generational: Empowering to learn, strategize, and develop with tailored solutions according to lifespan development.

mathias-sager-services-approach2

 


Sample C o u r s e   A

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING AND DEVELOPING A GROWTH MINDSET

Objectives

To understand the psychological and behavioural processes on which lasting learning results from experience.

Description

In this course, participants will get input about major learning theories and get to understand of how humans do learn, process and remember information. Course participants will also consider and get examples on how practitioners can use these theories to explain behavior in cross-cultural contexts.

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Sample C o u r s e   B

INSPIRING OTHERS ACROSS CULTURES AND (SELF-) LEADERSHIP PSYCHOLOGY

Objectives

To provide participants an understanding of leadership from a psychological perspective, and to examine the impact of culture on leadership success.

Description

In this course, participants will study leadership challenges from a several different psychological perspectives, gaining an understanding of more or less effective leadership styles across different cultures and contexts, and the ethical use of power and influence.

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Sample C o u r s e   C

DEVELOPING HUMAN CAPITAL, CULTURAL AGILITY, AND GLOBAL TALENT MANAGEMENT

Objectives

To develop an understanding of the psychological aspects around human capital development, cultural agility, and the impact and effectiveness of different global talent management strategies.

Description

This course explores the interaction between personality, leadership types, and individual learning styles. Course participants will evaluate the psychological concept of talent and study the criteria for attracting, retaining and developing talent globally. Participants will also consider the effectiveness and fairness of global talent management strategies and their impact at individual and organizational levels.

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O n l i n e   C o u r s e s

Developing Leadership Skills

The course ‘Developing Leadership Skills’ is a compelling summary of latest research and good practices that may well become your passport to explore new ways of effective leadership styles, increased levels of motivation, and untapped creativity.

Whether you are an HR practitioner, an aspiring or current leader, an executive coach, or a student, this logically structured course will help you in becoming personally and professionally more effective and efficient. You are offered practical tools for insight and understanding of your possible

  • roles in team situations,
  • conflict management style,
  • successful negotiation strategies,
  • stress management,
  • motivation,
  • better decision-making, as well as
  • unlocking of your innovation capacity.

The goal of this course is to make sure you will find answers to the questions that are relevant for personal growth and a thriving career. Compact, straightforward, and with numerous references to further information, the interdisciplinary, innovative, and cross-cultural knowledge and perspectives presented in the twelve short lectures will benefit your well-being and success as a dynamic leader and the common good alike.

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T h e   T e a c h e r

Researcher & Educator

Overview

Mathias’ transferable skills and experience are in education, business administration, advisory, risk management, and psychology and learning & development to facilitate change from a cross-cultural perspective. He has led  quality and complex programs successfully working with diverse teams and collaborating interdisciplinary with stakeholders to achieve innovative solutions. Mathias has worked as a teacher, a leadership trainer, as well as a senior manager responsible for client relationships, counseling, and virtual teams around the world. Also, he’s a social entrepreneur and serving as a strategy and leadership advisor for various clients.

Expertise

  • Cross-cultural developmental psychology
  • Psychology of Learning
  • Global Talent Management (GTM)
  • Leadership and Business Administration
  • Strategic Thinking, ICT, and Risk and Program Management

Work Experience

Visiting Researcher at University of Tokyo (Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies)

  • Founder of the Platform Cooperativism Japan (PCJ) Consortium
  • Research collaboration related to the PCJ

Strategy Advisory and Project Management Services for International Technology Companies in Japan and India

  • Strategy and concept
  • Branding, Marketing, and P&R
  • Project Management

Occasional Instructor Leadership & Organizational Development at J-Globalgroup

  • Conceptualization of a Learning & Development model
  • Event facilitator and Instructor

Senior Manager | Financial Services (Advisory) at Ernst & Young ShinNihon LLC

  • Global lead and coordination of IT advisory, risk, assurance, and compliance projects for Japanese and International clients in the Financial Services sector
  • Team leader and counselor in the International IT Risk and Assurance practice
  • Cross-service line and multidisciplinary team and business development

Senior Manager, Advisory Services | EMEIA Financial Services, Ernst & Young AG

  • Advisory Services IT Risk and Assurance Insurance Services Team Leader Switzerland
  • Learning champion for the national IT Advisory practice, including design and deployment of learning maps, including the coordination and delivery of training and recruitment
  • Design, implementation and lead of project management office services

Trainer/Lecturer at the Akademie der Treuhandkammer (academy of the Institute of Certified Accountants and Tax Consultants)

  • Conception and realization (train the trainer and lecturer) of the Modules “Audit” and “Professional Judgment: Process oriented audit”

Trainer for Leadership Communication at the Centre for Information and Communication of the Swiss Army (ZIKA)

  • Leadership communication and conflict management trainer for public services personnel
  • Communications manager of the Center for Information and Communications of the Swiss Army

High School Teacher, Rupperswil

  • Class tutor, all courses

Expertise

  • Cross-cultural developmental psychology
  • Psychology of Learning
  • Global Talent Management (GTM)
  • Leadership, Business Administration, and Project Management

Education

-Diploma in Psychology (MSc program University of Liverpool), 2016 – 2018

-Executive MBA in ICT Management, University of Fribourg, 2010 – 2014

-Bachelor in Information Management, IFA, 2005 – 2007

-Postgraduate Certificate in Crisis Communication, 2006 – 2006

-Bachelor in Education Science, University of Neuchâtel, Higher Pedagogical Institute, Zofingen, 1995 – 1998

Language Fluency

  • Native German speaker;
  • Professional business level English

Nationality

Switzerland

Global Talent Gender Gap

mathias-sasger-gender-talent-gap

Content

  • The case for gender egalitarianism
  • Prestige economies and cultural tightness
  • Functional literacy and inclusiveness
  • Strength-based approaches to fostering “female” leadership styles
  • Humanitarian principles and global egalitarian mindset

 


The case for gender equality

Although women represent half of the population in education and global workforce at career start and mid-level management, men outnumber women in all sectors’ leadership positions. The role of female talents in future leadership is a critical challenge [1] for the growth of economies [2]. A study among a big sample across 26 countries found that work-life balance, commitment, and turnover thoughts are related to perceived job autonomy that is, for women, mediated by present gender egalitarianism [3].

Prestige economies and cultural tightness

Prestige governs economies, causing countries with high expenditure in research and development to have comparatively fewer female members (e.g., Japan with 11.6% female researchers, and only 9.7% professors), while low-expenditure nations (e.g., the Philippines and Thailand employ female researchers beyond 45%) [4]. To stay with the example of Japan, nations with similar challenges related to vocational stereotypes, job availability constraints, traditional bias and a collective mindset, even when not having as much government promotion of female employment as Japan, tend to have fewer women in corporate executive positions. Roibu and Roibu (2017) ascribe this to the strictness of how social and work rules are enforced [2]. Indeed, cultural tightness, i.e., the fierceness of norms, contributes to explaining why some organizations in some countries are less successful in advocating women leadership than others [5]. However, the finding of male domination in higher leadership positions seems to be more generally a phenomenon somewhat independent of nationality, culture, and even legislation for gender equality [4].

Functional literacy and inclusiveness

Fast technological change can negatively pronounce skill deterioration during work interruption, such as caused by maternity leave [6]. Also, education needs to be carefully analyzed regarding whether it is suited to improve social inclusion or whether, in contrast, aggravates competitive exclusivity [7]. For example, functional literacy programs shouldn’t be designed as a reading and writing capability only, but as emancipatory enablers that integrate reading, writing, and socio-economic and political understanding for democratic participation and the self-efficient creation of social networks and wealth [8].

Strength-based approaches to fostering “female” leadership styles

Some woman may be more sold on power-promising, rewarding, and recognizing careers [4] and learn how to play the neo-liberal corporate game. Many, on the other hand, do also keep a philanthropic attitude that might not be come to success in an economy that rewards competition [9]. Leadership styles are evolving though, and the value of emotional intelligence is bringing female leaders, albeit slowly, into pole positions [10]. Strength-based approaches to talent development can help also preserving gender-specific genuineness throughout personal careers [11].

Humanitarian principles and global “female” mindset

The human species can change its mindset, and a female leadership style based on humanitarian principles might be precisely the fit for an increasingly globalized and cooperating world [12]. Millennial women are expected to have a high interest to play a global role [13]. Already existing transnational women’s movements [10] may additionally help to boost self-esteem to create more egalitarian local and global environments.

 

References

[1] Andrews, S. (2017). Leadership, EQ, and Gender: Global Strategies for Talent Development. TD: Talent Development, 71(2), 7.

[2] Roibu, I., & Roibu, P. A. (. (2017). The Differences between Women Executives in Japan and Romania. Oradea Journal Of Business And Economics, Vol 2, Iss 1, Pp 81-90 (2017), (1), 81.

[3] Halliday, C. S., Paustian-Underdahl, S. C., Ordonez, Z., Rogelberg, S. G., & Zhang, H. (2017). Autonomy as a key resource for women in low gender egalitarian countries: A cross-cultural examination. Human Resource Management, 57(2), 601-615.

[4] Morley, L. (2014). Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy. Higher Education Research And Development, 33(1), 114-128.

[5] Toh, S. M., & Leonardelli, G. J. (2013). Cultural constraints on the emergence of women leaders: How global leaders can promote women in different cultures. Organizational Dynamics, 42(3), 191-197. doi:10.1016/j.orgdyn.2013.06.004

[6] Jung, J. H., & Choi, K. (2009). Technological Change and Returns to Education: The Implications for the S&E Labor Market. Global Economic Review, 38(2), 161-184. doi:10.1080/12265080902891461

[7] Appleby, Y., & Bathmaker, A. M. (2006). The new skills agenda: increased lifelong learning or new sites of inequality?. British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 703-717.

[8] Kagitcibasi, C., Goksen, F., & Gulgoz, S. (2005). Functional adult literacy and empowerment of women: Impact of a functional literacy program in Turkey. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(6), 472-489.

[9] Morley, L. (2016). Troubling intra-actions: gender, neo-liberalism and research in the global academy. Journal Of Education Policy, 31(1), 28-45.

[10] David, E. (2010). Aspiring to leadership …… a woman’s world? An example of developments in France. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, (4), 347. doi:10.1108/13527601011086577

[11] Garcea, N., Linley, A., Mazurkiewicz, K., & Bailey, T. (2012). Future female talent development. Strategic HR Review, (4), 199. doi:10.1108/14754391211234913

[12] Werhane, P. H. (2007). Women Leaders in a Globalized World. Journal Of Business Ethics, (4), 425. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9516-z

[13] Stefanco, C. J. (2017). Beyond Boundaries: Millennial Women and the Opportunities for Global Leadership. Journal Of Leadership Studies, 10(4), 57-62. doi:10.1002/jls.21505

Cognitive Competence Compensates for Age-related Working Memory Deficits

mathias-sager-adult learning memory brain hippocampus

Summary. The transverse patterning (TP) task is a cognitive problem resembling the childhood game of “rock-paper-scissors” requiring decision-making in the process of learning associations between paired stimuli. The TP problem served the assessment of configural learning deficits due to hippocampal damages in animals. In experiments with humans, training has proven to increase test subjects’ TP task performance. This supports the interpretation that even older adults may be able to learn to adapt their cognitive strategies to compensate for age-related working memory deterioration. Furthermore, older adults may disproportionately benefit from visual versions of TP task, which involve semantic knowledge. This was found to support older individuals in the application of cognitive strategies that are activating less age-sensitive working memory and brain areas.

You an try the TP learning memory experiment yourself at opl.apa.org.

Continue reading Cognitive Competence Compensates for Age-related Working Memory Deficits

Scaffolding Cooperative Learning

mathias-sager-cooperative learning.jpg

Human interactions don’t lack technical but rather cooperative communication skills. The good news is that pro-social behavior can be learned. Collective argumentation is one means to scaffold learners’ engagement in group work. Also, the negotiation of values is vital for achieving a shared sense of agency and accountability between teachers and students. In computer-enabled learning, consequential engagement in the form of enabling equitability and showing the benefits beyond single contributions, as well as using game formats are promising pathways to progress cooperation in learning environments.

Continue reading Scaffolding Cooperative Learning

Egocentrism: Who can take whose empathic perspective?

hand-838975_1920.jpg

Egocentrism occurs as part of preschoolers’ development in the so-called pre-operational stage and means the inability of a child to differentiate between its own and other people’s thoughts [1]. In other words, children would not realize the suffering of others as such at all [2]. This poses a quite depressive outlook and may not correspond to own experience and observations. Aren’t there more empathy-promising possibilities than such a radical and moral-disabling egocentrism? Is there potential for interventions? And what does animal research tell us?

Continue reading Egocentrism: Who can take whose empathic perspective?