Summary. Social traps are situations in which individuals take rational (and often egoist) short-term decisions that, however, lead to negative collective results in the long-term. Some psycho-(logic) traps involve an isolating and limiting view on available behavioral choices. Because everyone needs to feel competent to take future action, the failure trap lets people deny their potential for further learning and engage in task-irrelevant actionism. The sunk cost fallacy is such … Continue reading →
Summary. Inabilities to accept (and therefore recognize) our dark feelings are leading us to externalize our shadow (as Jungians would say) to others, for example to a therefor loved partner. Especially vulnerable narcissists defend themselves against shameful helplessness in cases of separation with a partner (and therefore with a part of themselves) by negating their helplessness. To avoid frustration, rage, and violent defenses in case of uncontrollable separation it is, … Continue reading →
Learned helplessness and some psychological disorders Dogs who experienced repeatedly unavoidable electro shocks learned that they have no control over escaping from such painful events , and henceforth developed a cognitive deficit in the form of generalizing the helplessness expectation to other situations . This phenomenon is also considered reduced incentive motivation . Mental patterns of learned helplessness (LH) resemble those of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which associate with depression … Continue reading →
The traditional self-esteem paradigm does not take into account sufficiently the idea of bottom-up causality from state self-esteem (e.g., contextual academic achievement, social status, and appearance) to trait self-esteem (i.e., global self-esteem; e.g., a relatively stable personality characteristic, such as narcissism). This is problematic as it cannot explain, and is contradicted by, many studies showing that development throughout the lifespan is influenced by state self-esteem and self-experiences.
Abstract Self-esteem seems to play a significant role in one’s quality of life. A key factor positively influencing self-esteem is the possibility to freely choose one’s relationships. Japanese tend to report comparatively low self-esteem levels, what may be due to modesty considerations though too. The prevalent East Asian concept of ‘face’ reflects one’s evaluation of how the self is seen by others, while the concept of self-esteem represents the own … Continue reading →
Characteristics of social behavior Social psychology is studying a wide range of complex social behavior regarding, e.g., aggression, attitudes, attribution, gender roles, group processes, health and helping behavior, intergroup relations, leadership and motivation, personality, relationships, and social influences (Richard, Bond, and Stokes-Zoota, 2003), just to name a few. It is key that “Humans are a cultural species,” as Heine and Norenzayan (2006) aptly put it.